STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE EVALUATION OF STUDENT PRACTICAL SKILL IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION SUBJECTS THROUGH PROCESS/PRODUCT TECHNIQUES’
IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA.
MA’AJI CALEB ZONKWA
Ma’aji Caleb Zonkwa, a post graduate student in the Department of Vocational Teacher Education, with registration No.PG/00has satisfactorily completed the requirements for the course work and the research work for the Post graduate Diploma in Industrial Education.
The work contained in this project is original and has not been submitted in part or full for any other Diploma or degree of this university or any other university.
……………… …….. ……………
This project is dedicated to all Vocational Technical Teachers who sacrifice their time and money for the development of vocational technical education in our country Nigeria
I owe deep gratitude to so many people for their help towards the completion of this work. In particular; my director A. N. Bala the inspectorate zonal director of the Ministry of Education, Zonkwa and to my supervisor, Prof. O. M. Okoro who had faith in me and allowed me to carry-out the project . Their constructive criticism, and good knowledge of the developments of Vocational Education programme in Nigeria stimulated my initiative.
My thanks equally go to my wife Mrs Mary .M. Caleb for her devotion in the course of my international activities and studies at the University. In addition, I thank the International Bureau of Education, Geneva, for providing some useful materials for my use
TABLE OF CONTENT PAGE
Acknowledgement …… vi
List of tables ……… x
Abstract ………………… xi
Background of study … 1
Statement of the problem … 2
Purpose of study …… 2
Research questions ……… 3
Hypothesis …………… 3
Significant of the study… 4
Definition of terms…… 5
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE -- 6
Evaluation of technical subject in Nigerian schools… 6
Understanding contents of psychomotor taxonomy and other relevant domains… 8
Process /product evaluation 11
Observational review ……………13
Area of the study …….14
Population of study…14
Instrument for data collection …15
Validation of questionnaire ……16
Techniques for data collection…16
Method of data analysis…………16
PRESENTATION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS …18
Research Question 1 ………19
Research Question 2 ………22
Research Question 3 ……22
Research Question 4 ……24
Discussions of the Findings..28
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS…30
Restatement of the Problems31
Summary of Procedure used……32
Suggestions for Further Studies.34
Letter from the university …39
Covering letter from Kaduna State Ministry of Education --40
Affective domain content -----41
Classification of cognitive content -43
Rating /checklist -------44
LIST OF TABLE PAGE
1.Number and percentage of science and technical teachers having knowledge (of the meaning) of process
2. Number and percentage of science and technical teachers having knowledge (of the meaning) of product evaluation……...21
3. Responses on “ method used by technical teachers in assessingstudents practical skills……….22
4. Reasons why practical test are not often used in the evaluation of students skills………..24
5. Perception of technical Teachers on strategies that can be adopted in the effective application of process and product evaluation….25
6. Percentage analyses of science and Technical Teachers ingroups A, B, and C as it relate to the method which could be considered as the most effective in Evaluating practical skills.26
7. One –Tail Analyses of variance (ANOVA) on Respondents scores based on the most effective method of evaluating practical skills…………27
This study was conducted to identify strategies for effective evaluation of student’s practical skills in technical education subjects through process and product techniques in Kaduna State.
Process and product techniques are the two basic methods of evaluating the practical skills possessed by students in science and technology education.
The purpose of the study included to identify methods of evaluation most frequently adopted by teachers in assessing students practical skills.
In effect it sought to determine which of the two methods (process or product) are most effective in evaluating students practical skills.Questionnaire was the instrument used in collecting data from the respondents. The population for the study comprised all teachers teaching practical subjects in all secondary and post secondary institutions in Kaduna State.
There was no sampling employed for this particular study due to the small size of respondents from the two Local Government Areas chosen for the pilot study (i e. Jema’a and Zangon Kataf) in Kaduna State.
The data were analyzed through the use of means, percentages and analyses of variance (ANOVA). The study finding reveled that there is an urgent need for Kaduna State Ministry of Education to have in –house, seminar, workshop and conference for the up-grading of technical teachers’ practices in the evaluation of practical subjects.
The study also revealed that a combination of process and product evaluation techniques is the most effective method of evaluating students skills in practical subjects. Based on the findings, it is recommended that the assessment of practical subjects should be through a combination of process and product evaluation methods.
Background of study
Technical Education is beset with numerous problems in Nigeria. Some of the problems relate to teaching processes and evaluation of student performances. The National Policy of Education (NPE) 1998, define Technical Education as that aspect of Education which deals to the :-
(a) acquisition of practical and
(b) applied skills with
(c) basic scientific knowledge.
One of the aims of Technical Education as stated in the policy (NPE) through the five different type of institutions outside the university: is training imparting of the necessary skills that lead to the production of :-
(a) craft men,
(b) technicians and
(c) other skilled personnel
who will be enterprising and self –reliant ; the realization of this aim lies on the use of appropriate evaluation technique and the appropriate environment.
Statement of the problem
The methods adopted by some technical teachers in assessing the level of practical skill possessed by student are extremely poor - poor in the sense that process evaluation is not adequately implemented . Rather students are encouraged to buy and present finished products for grades in practical courses . More over technical teachers do not (most a times) understand the importance of the psychomotor domain or give adequate emphasis to it as recommended in Okoro (2000) Nworgu(1992) Ali (1990) .
Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study is to identify strategies for effective evaluation of student practical skills in technical education subject through process and product evaluation. The specific objectives of the studies are-
1. Determine whether technical teachers have knowledge of the meaning of process evaluation and product evaluation.
2. Determine the methods that are used by technical teachers in assessing students’ practical skills Ascertain strategies that could be adopted to ensure effective application of process evaluation .
3. Determine why practical tests are not often used in the evaluation of students’ practical skills.
4. Identify strategies which could be adopted to ensure effective application of process and product evaluation.
1. What percentages of technical teachers have knowledge of the meaning of process evaluation and product evaluation?
2. What are the methods used by teachers in assessing students’ practical skills?
3. Why are practical tests not often used in the evaluation of students’ practical skills?
4. What strategies should be adopted in the effective application of process and product evaluation?
1. There is no significant differences in the responses of teachers from Jama’a and Zangon Kataf Local government on the strategies for effective evaluation of students practical skill using process and product methods
2. There are significance differences in performance of students when evaluated using process evaluation and product evaluation.
Significance of the study
The finding of this study (in view of its sensitivity) to our school system, seek to addresses ways of helping technical teachers acquire appropriate techniques for evaluating practical skills. This to make aware, also, to discourage students buying finished products from market and presenting to schools for their grades.
It is expected, that teachers use this finding to correct their method through the psychomotor taxonomy to asses process / product processes of practical skills. Administratively it will guide Head of schools to realize the consequence of not providing Technical materials for teaching of
1. This study is being made on micro bases using only 2 local government area of Kaduna state(Jema’a and Zangon Kataf Local government). This preparing ground for a further investigation on “Problems Issues and Dilemmas “ In teaching of Technology (technical subjects) at primary and secondary school levels in Kaduna state .
Definition of terms
The following definitions of process and product evaluation are drawn from Okoro(2000:55).
1. Process evaluation :-
“ …involve observing students while they are in the process of carrying out practical assignment and rating the level of performances,” “procedure adopted” by a student in carrying out a performance test.
2. Product evaluation :-
“… is an evaluation, not of the procedure adopted, but of the final product itself.” Product evaluation, “is not interested in the procedure adopted in answering a performance test but in the product or object produced or serviced.”
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
EVALUATION OF TECHNICAL SUBJECTS IN NIGERIAN SCHOOLS
The term evaluation has been categorized and given different interpretations at various (general/Vocational education) levels by many scholars. To some scholar, it is the appraisal on the worth or value of a thing or action and the making of appropriate decision on the basis of such appraisal, Grace (1994) Jere (1999) and Hughes (1959). While to others, evaluation means the collection of data and , the use of such data to summarize information with regard to variable under study, these to assess the effectiveness or quality of a programme / performances of the programme (Okoro2000, Hartbour – Peters1999 and Nworgu 1992).
Alkin (1970) observed explicitly, that evaluation is that process of which decision are made in view of concern outcomes, by selecting appropriate information. These collation and processing of information; collation and analyzing information ; in order to give concise report, summary of empirical data, useful to administrators/ executives in selecting among alternatives. NAFDAC(1994)
Supporting Okoro (1991) and Tanner(1980:151) informed us that in view , of appropriate evaluation the America research development effort “in skill Mastery as preparation” for effective vocational education, have brought about positive changes in the assessment of practical skills by Teachers and the America society.
However, in Nigeria, it is unfortunate as Okoro (2000), Okorie and Ezeji (1988) noted, that one of the problem associated with skill training is its evaluation. It has been observed by the author a number of the technical teachers trained in Nigeria are unable to evaluate the level of skills possessed by their students. Where as the ethical demand in their training is the development of their student skills. Accordingly, Okoro(2000) Okoro(1991) Okorie, and Ezeji(1988) contended that technical teacher’s pre-occupation should be to assist students acquire skills. Based on the above mention concepts, one cannot but agree with Aina’s (1990) view that initial preparation of technical teachers is fundamental: if and only if such teachers are to fulfils the necessary and accepted tasks in the methodology of inculcating knowledge, practical skills techniques in students.
Okorie(2001) and Okoro (1991) supported Aina (1991) when they stressed that a good vocational technical teacher (ethically) should posses (professionally) the ability of considering all relevant factors, including the nature of the skill performances been tested before deciding on the type of test to use, this is in conformity with Ma’aji(1984)
UNDERSTANDING CONTENTS OF PSYCHOMOTOR TAXONOMY AND OTHER RELEVANT DOMAINS
According to Okorie (2001) vocational technical education is concerned with equipping individuals on a worth – while activities, such as in knowledge, attitudes and skills that will enable such an individuals enter into their chosen occupation and progress. The realization of this aim lies on the use of appropriate evaluation technique in the assessment of the level of practical skills possessed by the individual student. A thorough evaluation of student performance in technical education involves the evaluation of the attainment of cognitive, affective and psychomotor objectives in their taxonomy.
This Aina (1972) graded the psychomotor domain from its lowest categories reflex movements that developed naturally to higher level of non-discursive communication which technical educators are not ordinarily concerned with unless they are engaged by inspectors. See below
1.0 Reflex Movement
2.0 Basic- foundamental movement
2.0.1 locomotors movement.
2.0.2 Non locomotors movement
2.0.3 Manipulative movement
3.0 Perceptual abilities
3.1 Kinesthetic discrimination
3.2 Visual discrimination
3.3 Auditory discrimination
3.4 Tactile discrimination
3.5 Coordinated perceptual abilities
4.0 Physical abilities
5.0 Skilled movements
5.1 simple adaptive skill
5.2 compound adaptive skill
5.3 complex adaptive skill
6.0 Non – discursive communication express
6.1 expressive movement
6.2 interpretive movement
Source Anita J. Hurrow “A Taxonomy of the psychomotor
Domain” New York Mackay (1972 : 1 – 2)
However it is noted by Ali(1990) that the higher psychomotor process operates with cognitive and affective processes in performing an industrial operation which required skilled manipulative technique. Therefore as stated by Umeano(1999) the cognitive and affective function of a human being are related to the Psychomotor processes. [See Appendix 4 & 5 for classification of cognitive and Affective domains by Bloom (1971) and Karthwohl, Bloom & Mesia(1964) ]
Based on the above concepts, every technical teacher in context, should be aware of the need to evaluate the above three domains and should determine ahead of time the specific objectives needed in the achievement of these three domains. The above statement is found to be in agreement with views expressed in Harbor – Peters (1999) Nworgu(1992) and Grace (1994)
Performance test as Okoro (2000) has stated, enable us to assess the psychomotor skills possessed by student. The ability to perform complex psychomotor skill can be determined through a written cognitive test but a practical performance test is the most direct and effective method of assessing practical skill acquisition.
Process evaluation involves ‘check list’ observing and rating the procedures adopted by students in performing a task: (see Appendix 6,for clarification) While product evaluation involves rating and grading the end product of the performance to determine the extend to which it satisfied previously determined criteria, Okoro(2000). In a metal work practical project involving the use of lathe machine as an example. Process evaluation may involve assessing :-
(i how the student mount his job on the chuck.
(ii How the student mount the turning tool on the tool post.
(iii …the operation of lathe control
(iv …centering the turning tool
(v …choosing the right speed /feed.
(vi …surface finishing [product ]
This is done through process evaluation observation using check list and rating scales. Product evaluation , on the other hand which is a terminal grading and rating, involves assessing the final product and noting whether it is turned to specifications or not. In the above example using of the lathe machine, both methods of process and product evaluation are observed to be important. Therefore, in assessing learner performances in vocational technical education, either process or product evaluation or combinations of both methods are used.
The neglect of process and product measurement by teachers does not lead to proper evaluation of students. Teachers are observed to rely on written cognitive test as strategy for assessing practical skill acquisition in learners. The learner will be deficient in the psychomotor skill. The outermost effect of such is that the learner unconsciously and consciously imbibes the cognitive skill. This does not justify the basic need of vocational education in Nigeria school system as required by both National policy on education (1998) and the National policy on science and technology (1988).
Based on the above mentioned issues, it seem therefore necessary, that ways should be developed by the universities, Technical Teachers Colleges, Polytechnics etc. to seek ways of helping technical teachers acquire appropriate technique(s) for the assessment of learner’s practical skills. Having the above insight, this study was therefore designed to investigate and determine method (s) of evaluation which is most appropriate.
The chapter is divided into eight sections showing the area of the study, population , sample and sampling technique and instrument for data collection …and decision rule.
Area of the study:
The area of study was Kaduna state of Nigeria and this study was limited only to two local Government Area as a pilot study of the state. These two local Government Areas:-
i. Jemma’a L.G
ii Zango Kataf L.G.
were selected based on the fact that they have two post secondary schools offering technical education in Kaduna state close to me.
Population of study :
The population is made of technical teachers in secondary and post secondary institutions within the state. These technical teachers were classified under three groups:
Teachers without teaching qualification
Teachers with teaching qualification)
with post graduate diploma in Education
B.Sc. ;B.Engr. B.Sc. Ed; B. Ed B. A.; H ND/ H TD
These collectively form the entire population of respondent for the research. There are 53 technical teachers teaching in Jema’a and Zango Kataf Local Government technical institutions. Since the Population is small there will no sampling .The entire population was studied.
Instrument for data collection.
A four point rating scale questionnaire was developed for the study by the researcher . the questionnaire has 17 items and is titled “Assessment of Practical Skill in Technical Education Questionnaire”
Validation of Questionnaire
The questionnaire as an instrument was validated by five lecturers from the Department of Vocational Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. It was also validated by the staff of the Ministry of Education Kaduna State who will be the end user of the findings.
Techniques for data collection
A total of 53 copies of the instrument were distributed by hand . All the 53 copies of the questionnaire were properly filled and returned.
These represent 100% return. The properly filed questionnaire returned was made up of :
Group A - 19 copies
Group B - 26 copies
Group C - 8 copies
Method of data Analysis
Means, and percentages were used to answer the research questions. While Analysis of the variance was adopted to test the hypothesis of the study at 0.05 level of significance.
Any observed questionnaire item with:-
Mean x = 2.55 and above was considered agreed.
Mean x = 1→ 2.54 were considered disagreed.
A mean of 2.55 served as the cut-off point.
Also on percentile bases any questionnaire items observed to be lower than 60% shows Lack of knowledge.
For full graphical Presentation VISIT
PRESENTATION OF DATA AND ANALYSIS
The data collected from the respondents were statistically analyzed and presented in this chapter. The mean, percentages, and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) were used in data analysis. Each table contains findings on the responses to the questionnaire.
One – Tail Analyses of variance (ANOVA) on Respondents scores Based on the most effective method of evaluating practical skills
Table F. Ratio, At 5% Significant level with a degree of freedom 2 and 50 = F(2,50) = 3.18.
Since the calculated value of 10.37 is greater than the critical value of 3.18, the null hypothesis is rejected.
Therefore, there are a significant differences between the three Groups.
The following are the major findings of the study.
1 Teachers knowledge on Process/Product evaluation need to be in harness with Organizations or Institutions that has much experience in effective teaching of practical subjects
2 Deduction from retuned questionnaires has point out that, most image onlaboratories and workshop procedural by teachers, are lying on nfavorable Psychomotor Taxonomy
3 Implementations of Process and Product evaluation, requires the changing of the prevailing institutional values and derivatives – especially teachers and students role expectation by the National Policy on Education with the need of Nigeria Society
4 It has been discovered, it is not the level of the system (Institutional) that matters but the quality of the teachers/ administrators pursued in reaching the level of their teaching career in science and technology, Practical Subjects.
DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS
1.The effect from all analysis is, if we cannot discriminate between these three groups on the basis of level of the teaching method that they have attained;
Nonetheless we can discriminate between them on the basic of how that level was reached to become teachers in teaching practical subjects in science and Technology.
From observation of the three groups on what they agreed to or disagreed, these direct our attention to the fact that, there exist several attitudes and motives held by teachers supporting the combination of process/product evaluation of practical subjects. These include the following:
2 this will help those student who have the greatest practical needs.
3. this will motivate student and stop social promotions, i.e. purchasing items from the markets and presenting for grades.
4. this will define more precisely what practical skills most be taught and learned.
5. this will certify that student have the experiences required of their practical subjects.
The combination of process/product evaluation measure how school/institutional skills are applied to real-life situation.
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
The restatement of the problem, summary of the procedure use, tabulation of returns of questionnaire, principal findings recommendations suggestions for further studies are presented here as well as other deductions, and discussions; the summary and conclusion of the study as well as recommendation have been presented in this chapter.
RESTATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In most of our school system today, the idea of assessing student practical skills in science and Technology is beset with problems in evaluations measurement.
Scholars and qualified practicing teachers in science and Technology recommend that practical skills possessed by students should be evaluated using the process/ product technique of evaluation. Yet, the method adopted by some science and technical teachers in assessing the practical skill possessed by student is extremely poor. Poor in that, students are encouraged to buy finished products for grades in practical subjects. While in some cases written test (at most) are administered to students for award of grades in practical subjects--, which is wrong.
It was to redress the menace the research was conceived to find out and:-
1 Determine whether technical teachers have knowledge of the meaning of process evaluation and product evaluation.
2 Determine the methods that are used by technical teachers in assessing students’ practical skills Ascertain strategies that could be adopted to ensure effective application of process evaluation .
3 Determine why practical tests are not often used in the evaluation of students’ practical skills.
4 Identify strategies which could be adopted to ensure effective application f process and product evaluation.
SUMMARY OF PROCEDURE USE
The study was carried out using a questionnaire developed by the researcher.
The questionnaire contained 16 items intended to ascertain from teachers of technical and science subjects their opinion on the use of process and product evaluation method in assessing students’ acquisition of practical skills
Three hundred copies of the questionnaire were produced and distributed through the inspectorate divisions of Ministry of Education ( all over) Kaduna State. Out of these 300 copies, 53 copies were personally administered to the teachers in Zango Kataf and Jema’a local government. These 53 copies were collected in full, analyzed using Mean, Percentages and Analyses of Variance (ANOVA) to test the Hypothesis developed for acceptance or rejection.
1. On individual basis of the three study groups on definition of term, item 8A (PROCESS EVALUATION) and item 8B (PRODUCT EVALUATION), teachers with teaching qualifications (group B) agreed with the definition: while it was disagreed by teachers without teaching qualification (group A). The (group C) teachers with post graduate Diploma agreed with definition of item 8B (PRODUCT EVALUATION).
2. The study further revealed that there exists area of disagreement by the three-study groups i.e. items 12 iv, 13, 14 and 15.
The study has revealed that not many teachers understand the meaning of process/product technique of evaluation of practical skill: especially those from group A and C of the study. In effect the study pointed out that the method adopted for assessing the level of practical skill possessed by students is extremely poor. Poor in the sense that, in some cases student are encouraged to buy and present ready-made materials for their grades in practical skills. However, written test are regularly used by a number of technical teachers, however majority of the technical teachers agreed that the combination of both process and product evaluation technique is the most effective method in evaluating students practical skills.
Based on the above, effort must be made in the training of technical teachers to greatly emphasize the use of process and product methods of evaluation in the effective assessment of practical skills in technical subjects.
In order to achieve success (by teachers in Kaduna State) in appropriate evaluation of practical subjects the following recommendations are made:-
1. Technical teachers should be adequately trained in educational evaluation method .
2. Workshops, Seminars and Conferences to be organized constantly for proper up grading of technical teachers in educational practices in evaluation .
3. Professionally, qualified teachers should be assigned to teach and evaluate technical [educational] subjects.
4 Written cognitive test as strategy in assessing practical skills should be discouraged, since the demand of psychomotor domains and its contents directs the acquisition /assessment of practical skills by actual physical observations.
SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES
In the course of the research, especially during validation of questionnaire and pilot - testing, it is observed that there is the need for further studies to discover and ascertain “Problems, Issues and Dilemmas in the teaching of science and technology in Primary and Secondary Schools in Kaduna State of Nigeria.
These should address :-
1. The use of materials in teaching Practical Subjects
2. Laboratory and Workshops Utilizations
3. Founding of Practical Subjects
4. Handling of Practical Subjects by School Administrators
5. The Teaching of Practical Subjects in Primary Schools especially Vocational Technical Subjects.
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UNIVERSITY OF NIGERIA NSUKKA
DEPARTMENT OF VOCATIONAL TEACHER’S EDUCATION
STRATEGIES FOR EFFECTIVE EVALUATION OF STUDENT PRACTICAL SKILL IN TECHNICAL EDUCATION SUBJECT THROUGH PROCESS/PRODUCT TECHNIQUES: IN KADUNA STATE
AFFECTIVE DOMAIN CONTAINS
1. Receiving: (Attending) sensitive to the existence of a given condition , phenomenon , situation or problem .
1.1. Awareness. Conscious, recognition of the existence of a given condition, phenomenon, situation or problem (e.g. awareness of aesthetic factors in architect)
1.2. Willingness to receive. Willingness to take notice of a given phenomenon (etc) rather than to avoid it (e.g. Listen attentively to what others have to say)
2. Responding: Reaction to a phenomenon through overt response or doing something with, or as a result of a given phenomenon.
5.0 Acquiescence in responding. Compliance with a given condition (e.g. obeys school regulations)
5.1 Willingness to respond : Voluntary action in relation to a given phenomenon (e.g. voluntary reads the newspapers and discuss current affairs)
5.2 Satisfaction in response. Enjoyment in acting on a given phenomenon (e.g. enjoys playing the piano or reading literature).
6. Valuing: Attachment of worth or belief in a phenomenon with some degree of consistency.
4.0 Acceptance of value. Belief in a proposition, condition, doctrine (etc) with reasonable but tentative certainty. (e.g. agrees that women should receive equal pay for equal work)
4.1 Preference for value. Belief in the desirability or necessity of a proposition, condition (etc) over corresponding alternatives (e.g. deliberately seeks the views of others on controversial issues with a view towards forming one’s opinions).
3.3 Commitment to a value. Conviction and full involvement in a cause, principle, or doctrine (e.g. writes letter to editorprotesting, censorship in any form)
7. Organization: Development of value as an organized system, including the determination of their inter-relationships and the establishment of value priorities.
4.1 Conceptualization of value. Comprehension of the relation of abstract elements of a value to those already held or to new values that are gaining ones acceptance (e.g. identifies the characteristic of classical music, which he admires and enjoys. In relation to rock and roll which he dislikes).
4.2 Organization of value system. Development of a complex of values, including disparate values, in term of an ordered relationship, which, ideally, is harmonious and internally consistence (e.g. weighs alternative social policies and practices in terms of need to promote the public welfare rather than the aggrandizement of special interests).
8. Characterization : (by a value or value complex). Synthesis and internalization of a value system in a sufficient harmonious and pervasive way. So as to lead the individual to act consistently in accordance with the values belief or ideals that comprises his total philosophy or world view.
5.1 Generalized set. Orientation enabling the individual to reduce and order the complex environment and to act onsistently and effectively in it (e.g. readiness to revive judgment and to change behaviour in the light of valid evidence).
5.2 Characterization . Internalization of a value system having as its objective the whole of what is known and knowable in a consistence and harmonious relationship (e.g. regulate one’s personal and civil life according to a code of behaviour based on ethical principles consistent with democratic ideals).
CLASSIFICATION OF COGNITIVE CONTAINS
1.10 Knowledge of specifics
1.11 Knowledge of terminology
1.12 Knowledge of specific acts
1.20 Knowledge of Ways and Means of Dealing with specifics
1.21. Knowledge of convection
1.22 Knowledge of trends and sequences
1.23 Knowledge of classification and categories
1.24 Knowledge of criteria
1.25 Knowledge of methodology.
1.30 Knowledge of Universal and Abstraction in a field
1.31 Knowledge of principle and generalizations
1.32 Knowledge of theories and structures
8.0 Analysis of elements
8.1 Analysis of relationship
8.2 Analysis of organizational principles
5.10 Production of a unique communication
5.11 Production of a plan or proposal set of operations
5.12 Derivation of a set of abstract relations.
6.10 Judgments in terms of internal evidence
6.11 Judgments in terms of external criteria.
RATING SCALE AND CHECK LIST
Source : extracted from V.F. AJOKE HARBOR-PETERS “Note worthy Points on Measurement And Evaluation,” Enugu: Snaap press Ltd. pp. 4
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